RAMDHARI SINGH DINKAR
Ramdhari Singh (23 September 1908 – 24 April 1974), known by his pen name Dinkar, was an Indian Hindi artist, writer, nationalist and scholarly, who is considered as one of the most significant present day Hindi artists. Ramdhari Singh emerged as a writer of resistance as an outcome of his patriot verse written in the prior days Indian freedom. His verse oozed veer rasa, and he has been hailed as a Rashtrakavi (“national writer”) because of his rousing energetic organizations.
Ramdhari Singh was a normal artist of Hindi Kavi sammelan in those days and is hailed to be as well known and associated with verse darlings for Hindi speakers as Pushkin for Russians.
Initially Dinkar supported the revolutionary movement during the struggle for Indian independence but later became a Gandhian. He used to call himself a “Bad Gandhian,” though, since he supported the youth ‘s feelings of indignation and revenge. He accepted that war is destructive in Kurukshetra but argued that it is necessary in order to protect freedom. He was similar to Rajendra Prasad, Anugrah Narayan Sinha, Sri Krishna Sinha, Rambriksh Benipuri, and Braj Kishore Prasad, influential nationalists of the time.
Ramdhari Singh was elected to the Rajya Sabha three times, and from 3 April 1952 to 26 January 1964 he was a member of this house and in 1959 he was awarded the Padma Bhushan prize. In the early 1960s, he was also the Deputy Chancellor of Bhagalpur University (Bhagalpur, Bihar).
Jayaprakash Narayan had attracted a gathering of one lakh people at the Ramlila grounds during The Emergency and recited the famous poem of Ramdhari Singh Dinkar: Singhasan Khaali Karo Ke Janata Aaati Hai (“Vacate the throne, for the people are coming”).
Ramdhari Singh Dinkar was born to Babu Ravi Singh and Manroop Devi on 23 September 1908, in Simaria village, Bengal presidency, British India (now in Bihar district of Begusarai). He was married in the Samastipur district village of Tabhka in Bihar. His favored subjects as a student were history, politics, and philosophy. He studied Hindi, Sanskrit, Maithili, Bengali, Urdu and English literature at school and later on in college. Iqbal, Rabindranath Tagore, Keats and Milton greatly influenced Dinkar and translated Rabindranath Tagore ‘s works from Bengali to Hindi. The poet Ramdhari Singh Dinkar ‘s poetic persona was shaped by life’s pressures and counter-pressures during the Indian liberation movement. He appeared to have a distinctive look as a tall man, 5 ft 11 inches in height, with a glossy white skin, long straight nose, wide ears and strong forehead.
Ramdhari Singh Dinkar had to fight day-to-day issues as a student, some linked to the economic circumstances of their families. When he was a Mokama High School student, staying on till school was closed at four p.m. was not possible for him. After lunch break, as he had to leave the class to catch the steamer back home. He was unable to afford to be in the hostel that would have allowed him to attend all the periods. How could the hostel fees be managed by a student who didn’t have shoes on his feet? Later, his poetry revealed the impact of poverty. This was the environment Dinkar grew up in and became a radical view poet of nationalism. The first time Ramdhari Singh Dinkar saw Mahatma Gandhi was in 1920. About this time, Manoranjan Library was founded at Simariya. He has also published a handwritten Pamphlet.
RAMDHARI SINGH DINKAR ‘S POEM –
The Indian freedom movement had already begun under the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi when Ramdhari Singh Dinkar stepped into his adolescence. When he entered Patna College after matriculation in 1929 to study intermediate, the movement began to become violent. The Simon Commission, against which demonstrations were being held nationwide, arrived in 1928. Demonstrations were also held at Patna and the oath-paper was signed by Ramdhari Singh Dinkar too. Thousands came to the Gandhi Maidan rally, in which Dinkar also took part. During the protest against the Simon Commission, British Government police lathi mercilessly charged the Punjab Lion, Lala Lajpat Rai, who succumbed to the injuries. The entire country was in an uproar. Because of these agitations Dinkar ‘s youthful mind became increasingly radical. His emotional nature took on poetic energy.
Ramdhari Singh Dinkar’s first poem was published in a paper called Chhatra Sahodar (The Students’ Brother) in 1924. Chhatra Sahodar was a local newspaper created under Narsingh Das’s editorship. In 1928, a satyagraha of the farmer under Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel ‘s leadership proved popular in Gujarat’s Bardoli. He wrote ten poems based on this Satyagraha which was published under the title Vijay-Sandesh (Victory Message) in a book form. The composition is available now. The “Yuvak” office functioned right in front of Patna College. Dinkar had his poems published under the pseudonym “Amitabh” to avoid the wrath of the government. A poem of his, about Jatin Das’s martyrdom, was written on 14 September 1928. He wrote two small works of poetry around this time, called Birbala and Meghnad-Vadh, but now none of them can be traced. He composed a poem in 1930, called Pran-Bhang (The Breach of Vow), which was mentioned in his history by Ramchandra Shukla. So the journey of his poetic career with Vijay-Sandesh should be considered to have begun. Before this his poems had been a regular feature of the Kannauj-published magazine Desh, edited by Patna and Pratibha.
The first book of Ramdhari Singh Dinkar ‘s poems, Renuka, was published in November 1935. Vishal Bharat ‘s editor Banarsi Das Chaturvedi has written that the Hindi-speaking people should celebrate Renuka ‘s publication. Chaturvedi ji went to Sevagram at around this time. He brought a copy of Renuka with him. Mahatma Gandhi was handed the copy.
It is said that the famous Historian Dr. Kashi Prasad Jaiswal loved him like a son. Jaiswal had supported him in every way during the early days of Ramdhari Singh Dinkar ‘s poetic career. On 4 August 1937 Jaiswal died, which was a big blow to the young poet. Much later, he wrote in Kalpna, a magazine published by Hyderabad, “Jaiswalji was my first admirer, it was a good thing. Now that I’ve enjoyed the Sun , Moon, Varun, Kuber, Indra, Brihaspati, Shachi and Brahmani love and encouragement, it’s clear that none of them was like Jaiswalji. The world became a dark place for me, as I heard the news of his death. I did not know what to do. “Jaiswalji was probably the first person in Ramdhari Singh Dinkar ‘s poetry to understand the historical context.
His works are predominantly ‘Veer Rasa’ or ‘the brave mode,’ although Urvashi is an exception. Rashmirathi, and Parshuram ki Pratiksha are some of his greatest works. Since Bhushan he is hailed as’ Veer Rasa”s greatest Hindi poet. Acharya Hazari Prasad Dwivedi wrote that he was very popular with people whose mother tongue was not Hindi, and that he was a symbol of love for one’s own mother language. Harivansh Rai Bachchan wrote that he should receive four Bharatiya Jnanpith Awards for his proper respect – for poetry , prose, languages and for his service to Hindi. Rambriksh Benipuri has written that Ramdhari Singh Dinkar gives voice to the country’s revolutionary movement. Namvar Singh wrote that his age was truly the light.
Hindi writer Rajendra Yadav, whose novel ‘Sara Akash’ also carried a few lines of poetry from Dinkar, said he was always very inspiring to read about him. His poetry had been about revival. He frequently delved into Hindu mythology, and referred to epic heroes like Karna. He was an anti-imperialist and nationalist poet, says Kashinath Singh, a well-known Hindi journalist.
He also wrote social and political satires aimed at socio-economic inequalities and underprivileged exploitation.
A progressive and humanist poet, he chose to approach history and reality directly, and his verse combined oratorical vigor with a declamatory diction The Urvashi theme revolves around the spiritual plane of man and woman ‘s love, passion, and relationship, distinct from their earthly relationship.
His Kurukshetra is a narrative poem, based on the Mahabharata’s Santi Parva. It was written at a time when Second World War memories were fresh in the poet ‘s mind.
Krishna Ki Chaetavani is another poem composed of events in the Mahabharata which led to the Kurukshetra war. His Samdhini is a collection of poems that represent the social concern of the poet which transcends the nation’s boundaries.
His Rashmirathi is known as one of the best epic Hindu versions of Mahabharata.
Sanskrit ke char Adhyay –
He said in his Sanskriti ke Chaar Adhyay that despite different cultures , languages and topography, India is united because “even though we may be different, our thoughts are one and the same.” By looking at the history of Indian culture in terms of four major encounters, ‘Ramdhari Singh Dinkar’ made the understanding of historical perspectives far more direct: Between the autochthons and the Aryans; between the Vedic values and the philosophy promoted by the Buddha, as well as by Mahavira; between Hinduism and Islam; and finally between European civilization and the Indian way of life and learning. Such experiences have imparted importance to the community of India at various periods of history. The most striking characteristic of the civilisation past of India has been its marked tolerance and human attitude with the ability to transmit a message to the world.
History is not just a fact-compilation. History is written from a political perspective. Sanskriti ke char adhyay was written by the poet Ramdhari Singh Dinkar in the sense of values emerging from the struggle for independence. In the field of culture, Dinkar propounds the nationalist view of history, which has been advocated by historians in the field of history. The values that developed in the context of movement for freedom determine this book ‘s perspective. Anti-colonialism, secularism and the idea of an integrated culture are these values. This book was written around the very values in question. Ramdhari Singh Dinkar is Indian Culture Nationalist historian.
Divided into four vast chapters, the form and evolution of India ‘s culture from pre-Vedic times to around the middle of the 20th century was discussed in the first chapter. The Buddhist and Jain religions that came up as a protest against ancient Hinduism were discussed in the second chapter. The influence of Islam on Hindu culture after its advent has been studied in the third chapter along with the influence of Islam on Hindu-Muslim relations, such as nature, language, art and culture. A very credible investigation on the shared relationship between the Bhakti movement and Islam has been presented in this chapter. In this context, the way in which India ‘s culture takes on an integrated form has also been considered. In chapter 4, a comprehensive account of educational colonization and Christianity’s clash with Hinduism, etc., since the advent of Europeans in India has also been given. In this chapter, together with an inquiry into the 19th century Renaissance, the contributions of the leading Renaissance leaders were discussed in detail. A key feature of this chapter is also that a copious account of the Hindu Renaissance and, with it, of the Muslim Renaissance and its limitations was presented.
India ‘s historical composite cultural catalytic development is suggestively illustrated by Ramdhari Singh Dinkar as a result of four cultural revolutions and acculturative tendencies: (a) Aryan-Dravidian (Mongoloid) ethnic aggregations and mixtures, and linguistic agglomerations and transformations Indo-European / Dravidian/(Tibeto-Burman); Vedic or Brahmanic foundational worldview and Jain, Buddhist, Bhakti, Sikh, Sufi and a variety of neo-Hindus reform movements; (c) Hindu-Muslim encounter, coexistence, and osmosis; and (d) Indo-European contact and British colonial conquest of India. The massive panoramic overview of the historiography of India’s composite culture by Dinkar is about a kind of darwinist evolutionism. The idea of Ramdhari Singh Dinkar ‘s imagination of India is reminiscent of the assimilative nationalism ‘s American ‘melting pot’ paradigm.
He has won awards for his epic poem Kurukshetra from Kashi Nagari Pracharini Sabha, Uttar Pradesh Government and also a grant from the Government of India. In 1959 he won the Sahitya Akademi Award for his work without kriti ke char adhyay. He also received Padma Bhushan from the Government of India in 1959. Bhagalpur University awarded him an LLD degree. Gurukul Mahavidyalaya hailed him as Vidyavachaspati. On 8 November 1968 he was congratulated as Sahitya-Chudamani by Rajasthan Vidyapeeth, Udaipur. In 1972 Ramdhari Singh Dinkar was awarded the Urvashi Jnanpith Award. He also became a Rajya Sabha nominated member, in 1952. Fans of Ramdhari Singh Dinkar generally believe he genuinely deserved “RashtraKavi” (India poet) honour.
FAMOUS POETIC WORK:
Ramdhari Singh Dinkar’s first published poetical work was Vijay Sandesh (1928). His other works are:
- Pranbhang (1929)
- Renuka (1935)
- Hunkar (epic poem) (1938)
- Rasavanti (1939)
- Dvandva Geet (1940)
- Kurukshetra (1946)
- Dhoop Chhaon (1946)
- Samdhani (1947)
- Baapu (1947)
- Itihas ke Aansoo (1951)
- Dhoop aur Dhuan (1951)
- Mirch ka Maza (1951)
- Rashmirathi (1952)
- Dilli (1954)
- Neem ke Patte (1954)
- Suraj ka Byaah (1955)
- Neel Kusum (1954)
- Samar Shesh Hai (1954)
- Chakravaal (1956)
- Kavishri (1957)
- Seepee aur Shankh (1957)
- Naye Subhaashit (1957)
- Ramdhari Singh ‘Dinkar’
- Urvashi (1961)
- Parashuram ki Pratiksha (1963)
- Koylaa aur Kavitva (1964)
- Mritti Tilak (1964)
- Aatma ki Ankhe (1964)
- Haare ko Harinaam (1970)
- Lokpriya Kavi Dinkar (1960)
- Dinkar ki Suktiyan (1964)
- Dinkar ke Geet (1973)
- Sanchayita (1973)
- Rashmi Lok (1974)
- Urvashi tatha anya shringarik kavitayen (1974)
- Amrit Manthan, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Bhagn Vina, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Sapnon ka Dhuan, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Samanantar, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Rashmi Mala, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
Ramdhari Singh Dinkar’s major analytical and other prose works are:
- Mitti ki Or (1946)
- Chittaur ka Saakaa (1948)
- Ardhanaarishwar (1952)
- Reti ki Phool (1954)
- Hamaari Saanskritik Ekta (1954)
- Bharat ki Sanskritik Kahaani (1955)
- Rashtra Bhasha aur Raashtriya Ekta (1955)
- Ujli Aag (1956)
- Sanskriti ke Chaar Adhyaay (1956)
- Kaavya ki Bhumikaa (1958)
- Pant, Prasad aur Maithilisharan (1958)
- Venu Van (1958)
- Dharma, Naitikta aur Vigyan (1959)
- Vat-Peepal (1961)
- Lokdev Nehru (1965)
- Shuddh Kavitaa ki Khoj (1966)
- Saahityamukhi (1968)
- He Ram! (1968)
- Samsmaran aur Shraddhaanjaliyan (1970)
- Meri Yatra Yen (1971)
- Bhaaratiya Ekta (1971)
- Dinkar ki Dayari (1973)
- Chetana ki Shilaa (1973)
- Vivah ki Musibat (1973) and
- Aadhunik Bodh (1973).
- Sahitya aur Samaj, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Chintan ke Aayam, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Kavi aur Kavita, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Sanskriti Bhasha aur Rashtra, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
- Kavita aur Shuddh Kavita, Lokbharti Prakashan, New Delhi, 2008.
On 30 September 1987, the then President of India, Shankar Dayal Sharma, paid him tributes to mark his 79th birthday anniversary.
In 1999, Ramdhari Singh Dinkar was one of the Hindi authors featured on a series of commemorative postal stamps issued by the Indian government to commemorate India’s “Linguistic Harmony,” which marks the 50th anniversary after India adopted Hindi as its official language.
The government has published a book on the centenary of Ramdhari Singh Dinkar ‘s birth, written by Khagendra Thakur.
At the same time, a statue of him was unveiled at Ramdhari Singh Dinkar Chowk in Patna, and a two-day national seminar was held at University of Calicut.
Bihar’s chief minister, Nitish Kumar, laid the founding stone for an engineering college in Begusarai district named after legendary Hindi poet Ramdhari Singh Dinkar.
On 22 May 2015, at Vigyan Bhavan, New Delhi, Prime Minister Narendra Modi inaugurated the golden jubilee celebrations of the notable works of Dinkar, Sanskriti ke Chaar Adhyaye and Parshuram ki Pratiksha.
He died in Begusarai on 24 April 1974, at the age of 65.
Since his death the nation has occasionally remembered and honored the legendary poet.